The following reference styles are in use at QUT

Referencing and using sources

The following types of media are available for Referencing and using sources

APA

The following types of media are available for APA

More help with:

Authors

No author

Use the title in place of the author in text and in the reference list.

If the title is italicised in the reference list, italicise it for the in-text reference. If it is not italicised, place in quotation marks for the in-text reference.

Like this…
In Text
(Title or Journal or Book or Report, Year)
("Title of Article or Chapter or Webpage", Year)

Examples:
(HIV/AIDS Resources, 2004)
("Examining Modernism in Brisbane Architecture", 2009)
Reference List
Title of Journal or Book or Report. (Year) …
Title of Article or Chapter. (Year) …

Example:
HIV/AIDs resources: A nationwide directory (10th ed.). (2004) …
Examining Modernism in Brisbane architecture. (2009) …

Corporate author

The names of groups that serve as authors (e.g. government bodies or organisations) are spelled out each time they are cited. If the name is long and the abbreviation is well known, you may use the abbreviation in second (and additional) citations. Provide the full name of the group in the first mention in the text, followed by the abbreviation.

If numerous layers of government are listed as the author (e.g. Department of Justice and Attorney-General, Workplace Health and Safety Queensland) use the most specific agency (Workplace Health and Safety Queensland) in the reference. The names of parent agencies are spelled out in the source element as the publisher. However, if this would cause confusion (e.g. you have two different departments with the same name) then include sufficient information to distinguish them.

Like this…
In text
First use:
(Name of Organisation [Abbreviation if using later], Year)
OR
Name of Organisation (Abbreviation if using later, Year) is continuing …

Examples:
(Australian Bureau of Statistics [ABS], 2007)
(Workplace Health and Safety Queensland, 2013)
Queensland University of Technology (QUT, 2020) data showed …

Subsequent uses:
(Abbreviation, Year)

Example:
(ABS, 2007)
Reference List
Name of Organisation. (Year) …

Examples:
Australian Bureau of Statistics. (2007) …
Workplace Health and Safety Queensland. (2013) …

Editor

If possible, cite the portion (e.g. chapter) of the edited work that you are using. If not, use the editor/s in the citation, but only annotate their name/s with Ed./Eds. in the reference list.

Like this…
In text
Editor and Editor (Year) OR (Editor & Editor, Year)

Example:
Buckleton and Walsh (2005) OR (Buckleton & Walsh, 2005)
Reference List
Editor (Eds.). (Year) …

Example:
Buckleton, J., & Walsh, S. J. (Eds.). (2005) …

Author and editor

Refer only to the author in the in-text, refer to both in the reference list.

Like this…
In text
(Author, Year)

Example:
(Foucault, 2003)
Reference List
Author. (Year). Title. (Editor) …

Example:
Foucault, M. (2003). Abnormal: Lectures at the Collège de France, 1974-1975. (A. Salomoni, Ed.). Picador.

Author and translator

If known, supply the original date of the work and the date of the translation.

Like this…
In text
(Author, Original Year/Translation Year)

Example:
(LaPlace, 1814/1951)
Reference List
Author. (Translation Year). Title (Translator Name, Trans.). Publisher. (Original work published Year)

Example:
LaPlace, P. (1951). A philosophical essay on probabilities (F. W. Truscott & F. L. Emory, Trans.). Dover. (Original work published 1814).

Author cited in another work (Secondary Source)

Only cite secondary sources if you cannot locate the original source of the information/quote.

In the text, name the original source and give the citation for the secondary source. Only give the secondary source in the reference list. If the year of the primary source is unknown, omit it.

Like this…
In text
Primary author (Year, as cited in Secondary Author, Year, p. _)

Example:
Zukofsky (1978, as cited in Costello, 1981, p. 45)
Reference List
Secondary Author. (Year). Title of Secondary Work …

Example:
Costello, B. (1981). Marianne Moore: Imaginary posessions …

Two (2) authors

Like this…
In text

List both authors in every citation:

(Author & Author, Date)

Example:
(Purdie & Smith, 1999)

Spell 'and' if it forms part of your text:

Author and Author (Year) …

Example:
Purdie and Smith (1999).
Reference List

List all authors:

Author, & Author. (Year) …

Example:
Purdie, N., & Smith, D. (1999) …

Three (3) to twenty (20) authors

Like this…
In text

Include only the first author followed by 'et al.'

(Author et al., year)

If you are citing multiple works which would abbreviate to the same in-text format, include as many names as required to avoid ambiguity.

For example, if you are citing these two works:
  • Harrison, G., Hoang, T., Batchelor, H., and Steiner, A. (2019)
  • Harrison, G., McMahon, H., Batchelor, H., and Steiner, A. (2019)
Abbreviate to:
Harrison, Hoang, et al. (2019)
Harrison, McMahon, et al. (2019)
Reference List

List all authors, separated by a comma. Use an ampersand before the final author's name.

Author, Author, Author, & Author. (Year) …

Example:
O'Neil, C., Harbison, K. L., Brodribb, M., & Peacock, J. (2012) …

Twenty-one (21) or more authors

Like this…
In text

Include only the first author followed by 'et al.'

(Author et al., year)

If you are citing multiple works which would abbreviate to the same in-text format, include as many names as required to avoid ambiguity.

For example, if you are citing these two works:
  • Harrison, G., Hoang, T., Batchelor, H., and Steiner, A. (2019)
  • Harrison, G., McMahon, H., Batchelor, H., and Steiner, A. (2019)
Abbreviate to:
Harrison, Hoang, et al. (2019)
Harrison, McMahon, et al. (2019)
Reference List

List the first 19 authors, insert an ellipsis, and add the last author's name.

Author, Author, Author, Author, Author, Author, Author, Author, Author, Author, Author, Author, Author, Author, Author, Author, Author, Author, Author, … Last Author. (Year). …

Example:
Haden, C., Davies, H., Rutter, C., Sondergeld, P., Salisbury, E., Frost, D., Harrison, G., Batchelor, H., Hoang, T., Steiner, A., McMahon, H., Thompson, E., Harbison, K., Nelms, E., Fletcher, M., Cohen, D., Sondergeld, A., Thomas, J., Howard, S., … Clouston, J. (2020). …

Two items by the same author

Order entries chronologically in the reference list.

Like this…
In text
Author (Year)

Example:
(Hartley, 2007)
Reference List
Author. (1st Year) …
Author. (2nd Year) …

Example:
Hartley, J. (2007) …
Hartley, J. (2009) …

If the works are published in the same year, list alphabetically by title, then assign 'a', 'b', 'c', as needed.

In text
(Author, Year a)

Example:
(Hartley, 2007a)
Reference List
Author. (Year a) …
Author. (Year b) …

Example:
Hartley, J. (2007a) …
Hartley, J. (2007b) …

Two authors with the same family name

Use initials to differentiate them; unless both are authors of the same work.

Like this…
In text
Example:
(J. Jones, 2015)
(Moser & Moser, 2011)

Indigenous authors

If the name of an Indigenous creator is not known, use "Unrecorded" in place of the author.

Creative works
In text

The in-text citation is not changed.

Reference List

Add as much of the following information as you can find to the reference: Nation/Country, Language group, Place of Nation/Country. Add it before the source element.

Example:
Ngallametta, M. (2014). Wutan #2 [Painting]. Kugu-Uwanh people, Paman, Kendall River, Qld, Australia. Queensland Art Gallery, Brisbane, Qld, Australia.

Multiple creators - If the creators are from the same country/nation add the Nation/Country, Language group, Place of Nation/Country as above. If they are from different countries/nations, add the information for each creator with the creator's name in round brackets after it.

Example:
Author, A., & Author, B. (Year). Title [Medium]. Nation/Country, Language group, Place of Nation/Country (Author A); Nation/Country, Language group, Place of Nation/Country (Author B). Source.

Only include these details for Indigenous authors.

Personal communication
In text
Example:
(A. Author, Nation/Country, Language group, Place of Nation/Country, personal communication, Month DD, Year)

OR

Author (Nation/Country, Language group, Place of Nation/Country, personal communication, Month DD, Year) stated …

You can use the word 'yarn' rather than 'personal communication' if appropriate.

Reference List

Do not include personal communications in your reference list.

 

DOIs and URLs

Most scholarship is available online so most reference list entries end with a DOI or URL.

What is a DOI?

A Digital Object identifier (DOI) is a unique code, that identifies content and provides a link to its location on the internet.

When do I include a DOI?

  • Include the DOI if the item has one - even if you used the print version.
  • If a work has both a DOI and a URL, include the DOI only.

When do I include a URL?

  • The item has a URL but no DOI include a URL for a website IF it will work for the reader.
  • For works from most academic databases, do not include a URL.
  • If the database publishes work of limited circulation (e.g. ERIC) or material you can only get from that database, include the name of the database or archive and the URL.
  • If the URL requires a login (so it will not work for the reader) include the URL of the database or archive homepage instead.
  • Use the URL which links to the item you are citing - e.g. the comment you are citing, not the article the comment is about.
  • Do not include broken URLs in your paper, if the URL no longer works and you cannot locate an archived version, there is no source for the item - treat it like a Personal Communication.

How do I format the DOI or URL?

  • Format both DOIs and URLs as hyperlinks e.g. https://doi.org/10.1037/rmh0000008.
  • You can use either plain text or live links (usually blue with an underline).
  • Links should be live if it is to be read online.
  • Do not add a full stop after the DOI or URL.
  • You can use a DOI or URL shortener for long DOIs and URLs. Use http://shortdoi.org to shorten DOIs and any shortened URL service is acceptable as long as you check the shortened link does go to the correct site.

How do I find the DOI?

A DOI is usually printed on the first page of an online journal article or ebook. You can also check the database record. Alternatively, you can search for your article on the CrossRef database. If a DOI exists for your article, it will be recorded in this database.

If the item does not have a DOI, omit it.

What if a source doesn't have a DOI?

If the source is:

  • an electronic article, available in an academic database - omit it
  • a webpage, pdf, online document - provide the URL or the URL where you accessed the online document (whichever is easier)
  • only available in a database or archive - use the database URL or the name of the database and accession number, e.g. Retrieved from ERIC database (ED498566).

More information

For more information on using DOIs and URLs:

Publication details

No date of publication

Use 'n.d.' for the year in the citation and reference list.

Like this…
Author. (n.d.).

Resources not yet published

Substitute 'in press' for the year in the citation and reference list.

Like this…
Author. (in press).

Approximate date

Precede the year with the contraction for circa.

Like this…
Author. (ca. Year).

Dates for webpages

  • Use the copyright or "last updated" date of the page you are using.
  • Do not use these from the page footer as this may apply to the whole website.
  • If you cannot find a sure date of publication, treat the work as having no date.

Retrieval dates

  • Most website references do not need a retrieval date as the content is relatively stable.
  • Some websites are designed to change frequently. Provide a retrieval date (the date you looked at the item) when citing an unarchived work that is intended to change.
  • Some sites (e.g. Wikipedia, Cochrane) archive their versions. Use these when possible and you do not need to include the retrieval date.

Dates for magazine, newspaper or blog resources

Use more specific dates for works that are published frequently.

Be as specific as needed about the publication date.

Like this…
(Year, Month)
(Year, Month Date)

Example:
(2011, November)
(2011, November 21)

Author the same as the publisher

Omit the publisher from the source element.

Like this…
Example:
Australian Council on Children and the Media. (n.d.). Effects of media violence on children. https://childrenandmedia.org.au/assets/files/resources/fact-sheets/impact-of-content/Effects-of-media-violence-on-children.pdf
Children's Media Australia. (2006). Watching cartoons [brochure].

Unusual Resource

For non-routine items, include a description of the medium or format in square brackets after the title.

Like this…
Example:
Children's Media Australia. (2006). Watching cartoons [brochure].
 

Page numbers

When to cite page numbers

If you are quoting a source, include the page or other details to locate the quotation. Use the abbreviations p. and pp. for one or more pages.

It is not required to provide a page or section number for a paraphrase but you may do so if it would help the reader locate the passage (APA, 2019, p.269).

It is best to check with your lecturer as to their preferences in this matter.

No page numbers

To quote a written work that does not have page numbers, provide another way of locating the source.

This could be a section name, paragraph numbers or a combination of these.

Some works have numbered sections and lines (e.g. the Bible, classical works). Use these.

For plays, cite the act, scene, and lines.

Like this…

(Smith & Wesson, 2000, para. 4)

(Warr & Ellison, 2000, The consequences of fear, para. 4)

(King James Bible, 1769/2017, Ecclesiastes 10:19)

(Beckett, 1955/2019, 2.35-38)

Audio-visual works

To directly quote an audio-visual work such as a movie, TV show or recording, provide a timestamp for the beginning of the quotation.

Like this…

(Crabb & Sales, 2018, 15:22)

(CSIRO, 2009, 3:22)

Build your own

QUT cite|write does not provide examples of every possible type of reference - sometimes you need to create your own.

For an APA reference, there are four basic elements to a reference, and they are separated by a full stop.

Who. (When). What. Where.

OR

Author. (Date). Title. Source.

Who is responsible for creating the work?

  • author(s)
  • organisations
  • directors
  • artists

When was the work created?

  • year
  • in press
  • year, month date (if continually updated)

What is the work called?

  • title
  • journal title
  • book and chapter title
  • website title

Where can you find the work?

  • Who it was published by more accurate?
  • journal volume, issues, and pages
  • DOI
  • website of report or journal

If you need style information for something we don't cover refer to:

Harvard

More help with:

Authors

Chicago Manual of Style (16th edition) requires author's given or first names to be spelt out in full in a reference list. This is the preference when using Harvard.

However, if you are unable to find an author's first name, copy the format for author's name on the item you are citing. This may mean that some author's given names will be spelt out and some will have initials.

No author

Use the title in place of the author. Put the title in italics.

Like this…
In text

(Title Year)

(Stedman's medical dictionary for the health professions and nursing …)
Reference List

Title. Year. edition. Place of publication: Publisher.

Stedman's medical dictionary for the health professions and nursing. …

Corporate author

The names of groups that serve as authors (e.g. government bodies or organisations) are written in full in the reference list and the first time they are cited. The acronym for a name may be used in second and subsequent citations. Include jurisdictions if a government body, e.g. Queensland Department of Environment and Resource Management.

If the unit name is not unique enough to be found without the jurisdiction and government department information, include the jurisdiction and department name. Where the department name is included, it comes before the unit name.

Like this…
In text

First use:
(Jurisdiction. Government Department, Year)
  Or:
(Name of Organisation, Year)

(Australian Bureau of Statistics …)

Subsequent uses:

(ABS, …)
Reference List

Jurisdiction Government Department. Year. Title of document. Place of publication: Publisher.

Department of Justice and Attorney-General, Workplace Health and Safety Queensland. …

United States. Senate. Committee on Foreign Relations. …

Author and editor

Like this…
In text

(Surname Year)

(Derrida …)
Reference List

Author. Year. Title, edited by Editor name. Place of publication: Publisher.

Derrida, Jacques. … , edited by Derek Attridge. …

Author as editor

Like this…
In text

(Surname Year)

(Woolever …)
Reference List

Insert ed. after the author's name, in the reference list only.

Author, ed. Year. Title, Edition. Place of publication: Publisher.

Woolever, Karen Reese, ed. …

Author cited in another work (Secondary Source)

Like this…
In text

Name the original author, and then cite the secondary author (i.e. the author you read).

(Original author surname quoted in Secondary author surname Year, page from secondary author's book)

(Zukofsky quoted in Costello …
Reference List

Reference the secondary source only in the reference list.

Secondary author. Year. Title of secondary source. Place of publication: Publisher.

Costello, Bonnie. …

Two (2) to three (3) authors

Like this…
In text

List all authors in every citation.

(Surname 1, Surname 2 and Surname 3 Year, page)

(Layton, Robinson and Tucker …
Reference List

List all authors. For 2-3 authors, only the first-listed name is inverted. For the second and third author, the first given name and middle initial(s) - if available - are written in front of the family name.

Author 1, Author 2 and Author 3. Year. Title. Place of publication: Publisher.

Layton, Allan, Tim Robinson and Irvin B. Tucker. …

Four (4) to ten (10) authors

Like this…
In text

In the text, cite only the last name of the first-listed author, followed by 'et al.'.

(Surname et al. Year)

(Stoner et al. …)
Reference List

List all authors. For 4-10 authors, only the first listed name is inverted. For the remaining authors, the first given name and middle initial(s) - if available - are written in front of the family name.

Author 1, Author 2, Author 3, and Author 4. Year. Title. edition. Place of publication: Publisher.

Stoner, James A.F., Paul W. Yetton, John F. Craig, and Kevin D. Johnston. …

Eleven (11) or more authors

Like this…
In text

Name only the first author followed by 'et al.'.

(Surname et al. Year)

(Stoner et al. …)
Reference List

For eleven or more authors, list the first seven followed by 'et al.'.

Author 1, Author 2, Author 3, Author 4, Author 5, Author 6, Author 7, et al. Year. Title. edition. Place of publication: Publisher.

Stoner, James A. F., P. W. Yettor, J. F. Craig, K. D. Johnston, R. L. Yeager, J. K. Smith, J. Pitta, et al. …

Two or more items by the same author

Order entries chronologically in the reference list.

If the works are published in the same year, list alphabetically by title, then assign 'a', 'b', 'c', as needed. This may mean that (Hartley 2007a) is not the first in-text citation.

Like this…
In text

(Author Yeara)
(Author Yearb)

(Hartley 2007a)
(Hartley 2007b)
Reference List

Author. Yeara. "Title of chapter." In Title of book, edited by Editor, page-page. Place of publication: Publisher.

Author. Yearb. "Title of chapter." In Title of book, edited by Editor, page-page. Place of publication: Publisher.

Hartley, John. 2007a. …
Hartley, John. 2007b. …
 

DOIs

DOIs provide publication details for electronic resources.

What is a DOI?

A Digital Object identifier (DOI) is a unique code, which provides a permanent link to an online resource. The most common resources to include a DOI are electronic journal articles.

How do I find a DOI for my reference list?

A DOI is usually printed on the first page of an online journal article or e-book. You can also check the database record. Alternatively, you can search for your article on the CrossRef database (http://www.crossref.org). If a DOI exists for your article, it will be recorded in this database.

What if a resource doesn't have a DOI?

If it is a webpage, pdf, online document: provide the URL or the URL where you accessed the online document (whichever is easier). Refer to the example in electronic journal articles.

Publication details

No date of publication

Substitute (n.d.) for the year in the citation and reference list.

Like this…

Author n.d. Title. Place of publication: Publisher.

Clipper, Lawrence J. n.d. Pride and pre…

Resources not yet published

Substitute (in press) for the year in the citation and reference list.

Approximate date

Precede the year with the contraction for circa. (ca. 1986)

No place of publication

This information is only required for printed materials that are not journals.

e.g. If a book does not have a city of publication, use n.p. to indicate no place in the reference list.

Like this…

Author Year. Title. n.p.: Publisher.

Shakespeare's sonnets. n.p.: Bradshow.
 

Page, volume, issue

In text citations should include the number of the page where you found the information.

For works without pagination, include a chapter or paragraph number (if available), a section heading, or a descriptive phrase that follows the divisions of the work.

In citations of shorter electronic works, presented as a single searchable document, such locators may be unnecessary.

Summaries of information/sources do not require page numbers for the in-text citation if the information comes from many pages.

Build your own

QUT cite|write is not comprehensive. Sometimes building your own is needed.

Steps to build a reference

A reference list entry consists of:

  • Elements: the elements of information required to identify a source without confusion
  • Order: the placement of the elements in a consistent conventional order
  • Formatting: the separating punctuation, quotation marks, parentheses, italics, and spaces.

Steps to build a reference, or to proof your drafted references:

  1. Glean, collect and save all the information needed / Check that all required elements are there.
  2. Place them in the appropriate order, or check that they are.
  3. Apply / check the appropriate formatting and spacing.

Generally, the elements consist of information as it is copied from the source used, or the location of that source. However, the information when placed in a reference, should then be formatted according to Harvard style, rather than the style found in the source. This ensures consistency for the reader.

Further information

Chicago has two style options, the 'Notes and bibliography' style is described in chapter 14, and the 'Author-date' style is in chapter 15. Harvard at QUT uses the author-date style. However, chapter 15 outlines only what is different from chapter 14, so chapter 14 is still a source to be referred to.

Vancouver

More help with:

Authors

Format of author name

Enter author's surname, followed by their initials. Convert first and middle names to initials.

If the surname contains prefixes or particles, capitalise them as preferred by the author, or as they appear on the cited source.

If the given name is hyphenated, give each part of the name an initial.

Examples

Reference list

  1. van der Pols J. … for Jolieke van der Pols
  2. Van Akkeren J. … for Jeanette Van Akkeren
  3. Tey SK. … for Siok-Keen Tey
  4. Ibn-Salem J. … for Jonas Ibn-Salem

No author

Omit the author and begin the reference with the title.

Corporate author

For companies, use the full name of the company exactly as they use it, but omit the punctuation from any abbreviations used, and abbreviate indicators like Limited or Incorporated to Ltd or Inc. E.g. Etna and Vesuvius Press, Inc. becomes Etna & Vesuvius Press Inc.

Where an organisation is referred to by an acronym, provide the full unabbreviated name the first time mentioned in-text, with the abbreviation in brackets.

Use the full, unabbreviated name in the reference list.

Provide the department, committee or other grouping most directly responsible for the source. E.g. for the example publication below, the author is Central Queensland Hospital and Health Service not Queensland Health and not Queensland Government.

Where the nation or region of a government department does not otherwise appear in the reference, you may add this information for clarity. E.g. for the example publication below, UK has been added to the website title to identify the nation.

Examples

Central Queensland Hospital and Health Service (CQHHS) state5 that this change has…

Reference list

  1. Central Queensland Hospital and Health Service. 2018-19 Annual Report. Queensland Government; 2019. Accessed Apr 7, 2020. http://www.parliament.qld.gov.au/documents/tableOffice/TabledPapers/2019/5619T1608.pdf
  2. Office for National Statistics. Causes of death. UK Office for National Statistics. Accessed June 18, 2021. https://www.ons.gov.uk/peoplepopulationandcommunity/healthandsocialcare/causesofdeath

Editor not Author

If only editors, and no authors, are listed, use the editors names in place of the author's name, followed by ed. or eds.

Example

Reference list

  1. Temple NJ, Steyn N, eds. …

Translators

Where translators are listed, include these names in the same way as for editors, followed by trans.

Example

Reference list

  1. Simmel L. Dance Medicine in Practice: Anatomy, Injury Prevention, Training. Michael J, Simmel L trans. English ed. Routledge; 2014.

Two Authors

In-text

Provide both authors family names, connected with 'and', followed by the superscript number.

Reference list

Provide both authors in the usual format, with a comma between the authors.

Examples

Gardner and Amor9 state that …

Reference list

  1. Gardener RJM, Amor DJ. Chromosome abnormalities and genetic counselling. 5th ed. Oxford University Press; 2018.

Three to six Authors

In-text

Provide the first author's family name, followed by et al, then the superscript number

Reference list

Provide all authors in the usual format, with a comma between the authors.

Examples

In a recent study, Allen et al15 concluded that …

Reference list

  1. Allen C, Younger A, Veljkovic A, Glazebrook M. Orthopedic versus podiatric care of the foot and ankle. Orthop Clin North Am . 2021;52(2):177-180. doi:10.1016/j.ocl.2020.12.004

Seven or more Authors

In-text

Provide the first author's family name, followed by et al, then the superscript number.

Reference list

Provide the first 3 authors names with a comma after the third, followed by et al.

Examples

… whereas Heyne et al16 found that…

Reference list

  1. Heyne HO, Singh T, Stamberger H, et al. De novo variants in neurodevelopmental disorders with epilepsy. Nat Genet. 2018;50(7):1048-1053. doi:10.1038/s41588-018-0143-7

Secondary source (author cited in another work)

Whenever possible, find a copy of the original cited source and use that directly. If you cannot find the original source, name the cited author in your text, but reference the work being used (secondary source) not the cited work (original source) in your reference list.

Examples

As discussed by Virtanen,6 the method outlined by Saetang and Lu is safest…

Reference list

  1. Virtanen G. …
 

DOIs and URLs

What is a DOI?

A DOI (digital object identifier) is a unique identification code assigned to a piece of content. Unlike a URL, which may change or break, a DOI is permanent and will not change.

Whilst a DOI may be styled as a URL, the DOI itself starts with '10.'. In the link below, only the highlighted portion is the DOI.

https://doi.org/10.5204/ijcis.v12i1.1102

Where to find a DOI

A DOI is usually printed on the first page of an electronic journal article or ebook. You can also check the database record. Alternatively, you can search for your item on the CrossRef database. If a DOI exists for your item, it will be recorded in CrossRef.

How to format a DOI

DOIs in references should not be formatted as URLs but preceded by 'doi:'. There is no space between the colon and the DOI. Do not put a full-stop at the end of the DOI.

doi:10.5204/ijcis.v12i1.1102

When a DOI is provided, a URL is not needed.

How to format a URL

When providing a URL, use the URL that points directly to the item cited. Avoid URLs containing a search string.

Use this: https://www.qld.gov.au/health/conditions/all/qscript

Not this: https://find.search.qld.gov.au/s/redirect?collection=qld-gov&url=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.qld.gov.au%2Fhealth%2Fconditions%2Fall%2Fqscript&auth=KDCkPOAGE4WJLyTYzQ4jOA&profile=qld&rank=1&query=qscript

Either 'http://' or 'https://' should appear at the beginning of a URL. Do not include a full-stop at the end of a URL.

Where URLs are very long, you may be allowed to use a link shortening service. Check with your lecturer.

Publication details

Name of Publisher

Use the name of the publisher or publisher's imprint. Abbreviate company names as for Corporate Authors (see Authors).

For books, if a publisher cannot be found, use 'Publisher unknown'.

You do not need to give the publisher's location.

Copyright date

The copyright date and date of publication are not always the same.

For books and reports, a copyright year can be used when a specific publication year cannot be found.

For webpages, note that a copyright date given in the footer of a website usually refers to the entire website, not the individual page you are citing, so do not give this as a date of publication.

No date of publication

For books, if a date of publication cannot be found, use 'date unknown'.

 

Page Volume Issue

Unusual numbering

Where page numbers are in Roman numerals, preceded by a letter, or contain multiple parts, retain this formatting. E.g. ii-ix, A247-A253, 8-1–8-16

In-text citation of source with no page numbers

AMA11 does not provide instructions for adding a 'pinpoint' location, other than for page numbers. Contact your lecturer for guidance in this situation.

Article number instead of page numbers

For journals that use article ID numbers or e-Locators instead of continuous pagination, use that identifier instead of the page range. See Notes section of Electronic article.

Page ranges

Do not omit any numbers from page ranges. So 391-397 not 391-7.

If an article appears on discontinuous pages, provide only the pages that the article appears on, separated by a comma. E.g. 57,89-92.

No journal volume or issue number

If an article does not have either a volume or issue number, omit those elements.

If an article has neither volume nor issue numbers, provide the month and year of publication, then a colon and the page range

Abbreviated journal title. Month Year:start page-end page. …

Ga Chron Lymphol. March 1987:53-67. …

Journal supplements

When citing an article from a journal supplement, include this information inside or in addition to the issue number. Abbreviate the word supplement to 'suppl'. For example, when you have:

Volume and supplement number: …N Z Bull Lab Educ. 2016;14(suppl 2A):S25-S27. …

Volume, issue and supplement number: …Scott J Med Philos. 2003;51(3)(suppl 10):82-88. …

Parts of an issue

When citing an article from an issue published in multiple parts, include this along with the issue number. Abbreviate the word part to 'pt'. For example:

N J Mex Microsc. 2010;57(pt 3):1692-1705. …

Books with multiple volumes

If a single book is divided into volumes, provide this information after the book title and before the edition number:

Berman A, Kozier B, Erb GL. Kozier and Erb's Fundamentals of Nursing. Vol 2. 3rd Australian ed. Pearson Australia; 2015.

If a volume number appears in the book title, use the title as published and do not repeat the volume number after the book title.

Where a book has a volume number because it is part of a titled series of books, provide the series editor/s, series title, and volume number after the date of publication:

Moskalev A, ed. Biomarkers of Human Aging. Springer; 2019. Rattan SIS, ed. Healthy Ageing and Longevity; vol 10. doi:10.1007/978-3-030-24970-0

Build your own

QUT cite|write does not provide examples of every possible type of reference. If you cannot find a category that matches the type of work you are referencing, you may have to pick the closest types and combine elements of different examples.

For a reference in Vancouver style, the following elements are needed:

Hardcopy works: Author. Title. Date. Publisher. DOI (if provided)

Online works: Author. Title. Date. URL/DOI

Author: Who is responsible for creating the work?

  • Named individual/s, pseudonym or username.
  • An organisation, company or group.

Title: What is the name of the work?

  • The name or title of the work. For standalone works, italicise the title.
  • The name or title of another work/collection that your work is part of (e.g. chapter and book title, article and newspaper title). The title of the cited work is in normal type, and the title of the bigger work/collection is italicised.
  • Any special identifying numbers or codes for the item (e.g. version or catalogue number) may be provided after the title.
  • For unusual publications not otherwise described by the title, consider including some descriptive information (e.g. Package insert, Interactive feature, LISTSERV discussion).

Date: When was the work made?

  • Was the work created or made public on a specific date?
  • Was the word changed, revised or adjusted on a specific date?
  • If the work could change after you saw it, an accessed date may be required.

Publisher or URL: Where could your reader obtain a copy of the work?

  • A company responsible for distributing copies of the work (e.g. book publisher, film studio).
  • A unique collection, archive or database that the work is held in.
  • An online location where a reader could view the work.
  • If no copy of the source exists (e.g. an unrecorded verbal conversation), this may be an unpublished source which should not be put in the reference list.

For further examples or more details consult: