The following reference styles are in use at QUT

APA

The following types of media are available for APA

More help with:

Authors

No author

Use the title in place of the author in text and in the reference list.

If the title is italicised in the reference list, italicise it for the in-text reference. If it is not italicised, place in quotation marks for the in-text reference.

Like this…
In Text
(Title or Journal or Book or Report, Year)
("Title of Article or Chapter or Webpage", Year)

Examples:
(HIV/AIDS Resources, 2004)
("Examining Modernism in Brisbane Architecture", 2009)
Reference List
Title of Journal or Book or Report. (Year)…
Title of Article or Chapter. (Year) …

Example:
HIV/AIDs resources: A nationwide directory (10th ed.). (2004)…
Examining Modernism in Brisbane architecture. (2009)…

Corporate author

The names of groups that serve as authors (e.g. government bodies or organisations) are spelled out each time they are cited. If the name is long and the abbreviation is well known, you may use the abbreviation in second (and additional) citations. Provide the full name of the group in the first mention in the text, followed by the abbreviation.

If numerous layers of government are listed as the author (e.g. Department of Justice and Attorney-General, Workplace Health and Safety Queensland) use the most specific agency (Workplace Health and Safety Queensland) in the reference. The names of parent agencies are spelled out in the source element as the publisher.

Like this…
In text
First use:
(Name of Organisation [Abbreviation if using later], Year)
OR
Name of Organisation (Abbreviation if using later, Year) is continuing…

Examples:
(Australian Bureau of Statistics [ABS], 2007)
(Workplace Health and Safety Queensland, 2013)
Queensland University of Technology (QUT, 2020) data showed…

Subsequent uses:
(Abbreviation, Year)

Example:
(ABS, 2007)
Reference List
Name of Organisation. (Year)…

Examples:
Australian Bureau of Statistics. (2007)…
Workplace Health and Safety Queensland. (2013)…

Editor

If possible, cite the portion (e.g. chapter) of the edited work that you are using. If not, use the editor/s in the citation, but only annotate their name/s with Ed./Eds. in the reference list.

Like this…
In text
Editor and Editor (Year) OR (Editor & Editor, Year)

Example:
Buckleton and Walsh (2005) OR (Buckleton & Walsh, 2005)
Reference List
Editor (Eds.). (Year)…

Example:
Buckleton, J., & Walsh, S. J. (Eds.). (2005)…

Author and editor

Refer only to the author in the in-text, refer to both in the reference list.

Like this…
In text
(Author, Year)

Example:
(Foucault, 2003)
Reference List
Author. (Year). Title. (Editor)…

Example:
Foucault, M. (2003). Abnormal: Lectures at the Collège de France, 1974-1975. (A. Salomoni, Ed.). Picador.

Author and translator

If known, supply the original date of the work and the date of the translation.

Like this…
In text
(Author, Original Year/Translation Year)

Example:
(LaPlace, 1814/1951)
Reference List
Author. (Translation Year). Title (Translator Name, Trans.). Publisher. (Original work published Year)

Example:
LaPlace, P. (1951). A philosophical essay on probabilities (F. W. Truscott & F. L. Emory, Trans.). Dover. (Original work published 1814).

Author cited in another work (Secondary Source)

Only cite secondary sources if you cannot locate the original source of the information/quote.

In the text, name the original source and give the citation for the secondary source. Only give the secondary source in the reference list.

Like this…
In text
Primary author (as cited in Secondary Author, Year, p. _)

Example:
Zukofsky (as cited in Costello, 1981, p. 45)
Reference List
Secondary Author. (Year). Title of Secondary Work

Example:
Costello, B. (1981). Marianne Moore: Imaginary posessions

Two (2) authors

Like this…
In text

List both authors in every citation:

(Author & Author, Date)

Example:
(Purdie & Smith, 1999)

Spell 'and' if it forms part of your text:

Author and Author (Year)…

Example:
Purdie and Smith (1999).
Reference List

List all authors:

Author, & Author. (Year)…

Example:
Purdie, N., & Smith, D. (1999)…

Three (3) to twenty (20) authors

Like this…
In text

Include only the first author followed by 'et al.'

(Author et al., year)

If you are citing multiple works which would abbreviate to the same in-text format, include as many names as required to avoid ambiguity.

For example, if you are citing these two works:
  • Harrison, G., Hoang, T., Batchelor, H., and Steiner, A. (2019)
  • Harrison, G., McMahon, H., Batchelor, H., and Steiner, A. (2019)
Abbreviate to:
Harrison, Hoang, et al. (2019)
Harrison, McMahon, et al. (2019)
Reference List

List all authors, separated by a comma. Use an ampersand before the final author's name.

Author, Author, Author, & Author. (Year)…

Example:
O'Neil, C., Harbison, K. L., Brodribb, M., & Peacock, J. (2012)…

Twenty-one (21) or more authors

Like this…
In text

Include only the first author followed by 'et al.'

(Author et al., year)

If you are citing multiple works which would abbreviate to the same in-text format, include as many names as required to avoid ambiguity.

For example, if you are citing these two works:
  • Harrison, G., Hoang, T., Batchelor, H., and Steiner, A. (2019)
  • Harrison, G., McMahon, H., Batchelor, H., and Steiner, A. (2019)
Abbreviate to:
Harrison, Hoang, et al. (2019)
Harrison, McMahon, et al. (2019)
Reference List

List the first 19 authors, insert an ellipsis, and add the last author's name.

Author, Author, Author, Author, Author, Author, Author, Author, Author, Author, Author, Author, Author, Author, Author, Author, Author, Author, Author… Last Author. (Year)…

Example:
Haden, C., Davies, H., Rutter, C., Sondergeld, P., Salisbury, E., Frost, D., Harrison, G., Batchelor, H., Hoang, T., Steiner, A., McMahon, H., Thompson, E., Harbison, K., Nelms, E., Fletcher, M., Cohen, D., Sondergeld, A., Thomas, J., Howard, S.,… Clouston, J. (2020).

Two items by the same author

Order entries chronologically in the reference list.

Like this…
In text
Author (Year)

Example:
(Hartley, 2007)
Reference List
Author. (1st Year)…
Author. (2nd Year)…

Example:
Hartley, J. (2007)…
Hartley, J. (2009)…

If the works are published in the same year, list alphabetically by title, then assign 'a', 'b', 'c', as needed.

In text
(Author, Year a)

Example:
(Hartley, 2007a)
Reference List
Author. (Year a)…
Author. (Year b)…

Example:
Hartley, J. (2007a)…
Hartley, J. (2007b)…

Two authors with the same family name

Use initials to differentiate them; unless both are authors of the same work.

Like this…
In text
Example:
(J. Jones, 2015)
(Moser & Moser, 2011)
 

DOIs and URLs

Most scholarship is available online so most reference list entries end with a DOI or URL.

What is a DOI?

A Digital Object identifier (DOI) is a unique code, that identifies content and provides a link to its location on the internet.

When do I include a DOI?

  • Include the DOI if the item has one - even if you used the print version.
  • If a work has both a DOI and a URL, include the DOI only.

When do I include a URL?

  • The item has a URL but no DOI include a URL for a website IF it will work for the reader.
  • For works from most academic databases, do not include a URL.
  • If the database publishes work of limited circulation (e.g. ERIC) or material you can only get from that database, include the name of the database or archive and the URL.
  • If the URL requires a login (so it will not work for the reader) include the URL of the database or archive homepage instead.
  • Use the URL which links to the item you are citing - e.g. the comment you are citing, not the article the comment is about.
  • Do not include broken URLs in your paper, if the URL no longer works and you cannot locate an archived version, there is no source for the item - treat it like a Personal Communication.

How do I format the DOI or URL?

  • Format both DOIs and URLs as hyperlinks e.g. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/rmh0000008.
  • You can use either plain text or live links (usually blue with an underline).
  • Links should be live if it to be read online.
  • Do not add a full stop after the DOI or URL.
  • You can use a DOI or URL shortener for long DOIs and URLs. Use http://shortdoi.org to shorten DOIs and any shortened URL service is acceptable as long as you check the shortened link does go to the correct site.

How do I find the DOI?

A DOI is usually printed on the first page of an online journal article or ebook. You can also check the database record. Alternatively, you can search for your article on the CrossRef database. If a DOI exists for your article, it will be recorded in this database.

If the item does not have a DOI, omit it.

What if a source doesn't have a DOI?

If the source is:

  • an electronic article, available in an academic database - omit it
  • a webpage, pdf, online document - provide the URL or the URL where you accessed the online document (whichever is easier)
  • only available in a database or archive - use the database URL or the name of the database and accession number, e.g. Retrieved from ERIC database (ED498566).

More information

For more information on using DOIs and URLs:

Publication details

No date of publication

Use 'n.d.' for the year in the citation and reference list.

Like this…
Author. (n.d.).

Resources not yet published

Substitute 'in press' for the year in the citation and reference list.

Like this…
Author. (in press).

Approximate date

Precede the year with the contraction for circa.

Like this…
Author. (ca. Year).

Dates for webpages

  • Use the copyright or "last updated" date of the page you are using.
  • Do not use these from the page footer as this may apply to the whole website.
  • If you cannot find a sure date of publication, treat the work as having no date.

Retrieval dates

  • Most website references do not need a retrieval date as the content is relatively stable.
  • Some websites are designed to change frequently. Provide a retrieval date (the date you looked at the item) when citing an unarchived work that is intended to change.
  • Some sites (e.g. Wikipedia, Cochrane) archive their versions. Use these when possible and you do not need to include the retrieval date.

Dates for magazine, newspaper or blog resources

Use more specific dates for works that are published frequently.

Be as specific as needed about the publication date.

Like this…
(Year, Month)
(Year, Month Date)

Example:
(2011, November)
(2011, November 21)

Place of publication

For places in Australia or the United States: Follow the place of publication by the postal abbreviation for the state.

For other places: Use the name (or abbreviation) of the country.

Like this…
Brisbane, Qld
Boston, MA
Oxford, UK
Paris, France

No place of publication

Only required for printed materials that are not journals.

If a book does not have a place of publication, use 'n.p.' to indicate no place.

Like this…
Author. (Year). Title. n.p.: Publisher.

Example:
Hynes, L. J. (1974). Shakespeare's Sonnets. n.p.: Bradshaw.

Author the same as the publisher

Omit the publisher from the source element.

Like this…
Example:
Australian Council on Children and the Media. (n.d.). Effects of media violence on children. https://childrenandmedia.org.au/assets/files/resources/fact-sheets/impact-of-content/Effects-of-media-violence-on-children.pdf
Children's Media Australia. (2006). Watching cartoons [brochure].

Unusual Resource

For non-routine items, include a description of the medium or format in square brackets after the title.

Like this…
Example:
Children's Media Australia. (2006). Watching cartoons [brochure].
 

Page numbers

When to cite page numbers

If you are quoting a source, include the page or other details to locate the quotation. Use the abbreviations p. and pp. for one or more pages.

It is not required to provide a page or section number for a paraphrase but you may do so if it would help the reader locate the passage (APA, 2019, p.269).

It is best to check with your lecturer as to their preferences in this matter.

No page numbers

To quote a written work that does not have page numbers, provide another way of locating the source.

This could be a section name, paragraph numbers or a combination of these.

Some works have numbered sections and lines (e.g. the Bible, classical works). Use these.

For plays, cite the act, scene, and lines.

Like this…

(Smith & Wesson, 2000, para. 4)

(Warr & Ellison, 2000, The consequences of fear, para. 4)

(King James Bible, 1769/2017, Ecclesiastes 10:19)

(Beckett, 1955/2019, 2.35-38)

Audio-visual works

To directly quote an audio-visual work such as a movie, TV show or recording, provide a timestamp for the beginning of the quotation.

Like this…

(Crabb & Sales, 2018, 15:22)

(CSIRO, 2009, 3:22)

Build your own

QUT cite|write does not provide examples of every possible type of reference - sometimes you need to create your own.

For an APA reference, there are four basic elements to a reference, and they are separated by a full stop.

Who. (When). What. Where.

OR

Author. (Date). Title. Source.

Who is responsible for creating the work?

  • author(s)
  • organisations
  • directors
  • artists

When was the work created?

  • year
  • in press
  • year, month date (if continually updated)

What is the work called?

  • title
  • journal title
  • book and chapter title
  • website title

Where can you find the work?

  • Who it was published by more accurate?
  • journal volume, issues, and pages
  • DOI
  • website of report or journal

If you need style information for something we don't cover refer to:

Harvard

More help with:

Authors

Chicago Manual of Style (16th edition) requires author's given or first names to be spelt out in full in a reference list. This is the preference when using Harvard.

However, if you are unable to find an author's first name, copy the format for author's name on the item you are citing. This may mean that some author's given names will be spelt out and some will have initials.

No author

Use the title in place of the author. Put the title in italics.

Like this…
In text

(Title Year)

(Stedman's medical dictionary for the health professions and nursing …)
Reference List

Title. Year. edition. Place of publication: Publisher.

Stedman's medical dictionary for the health professions and nursing. …

Corporate author

The names of groups that serve as authors (e.g. government bodies or organisations) are written in full in the reference list and the first time they are cited. The acronym for a name may be used in second and subsequent citations. Include jurisdictions if a government body, e.g. Queensland Department of Environment and Resource Management.

If the unit name is not unique enough to be found without the jurisdiction and government department information, include the jurisdiction and department name. Where the department name is included, it comes before the unit name.

Like this…
In text

First use:
(Jurisdiction. Government Department, Year)
  Or:
(Name of Organisation, Year)

(Australian Bureau of Statistics …)

Subsequent uses:

(ABS, …)
Reference List

Jurisdiction Government Department. Year. Title of document. Place of publication: Publisher.

Department of Justice and Attorney-General, Workplace Health and Safety Queensland. …

United States. Senate. Committee on Foreign Relations. …

Author and editor

Like this…
In text

(Surname Year)

(Derrida …)
Reference List

Author. Year. Title, edited by Editor name. Place of publication: Publisher.

Derrida, Jacques. … , edited by Derek Attridge. …

Author as editor

Like this…
In text

(Surname Year)

(Woolever …)
Reference List

Insert ed. after the author's name, in the reference list only.

Author, ed. Year. Title, Edition. Place of publication: Publisher.

Woolever, Karen Reese, ed. …

Author cited in another work (Secondary Source)

Like this…
In text

Name the original author, and then cite the secondary author (i.e. the author you read).

(Original author surname quoted in Secondary author surname Year, page from secondary author's book)

(Zukofsky quoted in Costello …
Reference List

Reference the secondary source only in the reference list.

Secondary author. Year. Title of secondary source. Place of publication: Publisher.

Costello, Bonnie. …

Two(2) to three(3) authors

Like this…
In text

List all authors in every citation.

(Surname 1, Surname 2 and Surname 3 Year, page)

(Layton, Robinson and Tucker …
Reference List

List all authors. For 2-3 authors, only the first-listed name is inverted. For the second and third author, the first given name and middle initial(s) - if available - are written in front of the family name.

Author 1, Author 2 and Author 3. Year. Title. Place of publication: Publisher.

Layton, Allan, Tim Robinson and Irvin B. Tucker. …

Four(4) to ten(10) authors

Like this…
In text

In the text, cite only the last name of the first-listed author, followed by 'et al.'.

(Surname et al. Year)

(Stoner et al. …)
Reference List

List all authors. For 4-10 authors, only the first listed name is inverted. For the remaining authors, the first given name and middle initial(s) - if available - are written in front of the family name.

Author 1, Author 2, Author 3, and Author 4. Year. Title. edition. Place of publication: Publisher.

Stoner, James A.F., Paul W. Yetton, John F. Craig, and Kevin D. Johnston. …

Eleven(11) or more authors

Like this…
In text

Name only the first author followed by 'et al.'.

(Surname et al. Year)

(Stoner et al. …)
Reference List

For eleven or more authors, list the first seven followed by 'et al.'.

Author 1, Author 2, Author 3, Author 4, Author 5, Author 6, Author 7, et al. Year. Title. edition. Place of publication: Publisher.

Stoner, James A. F., P. W. Yettor, J. F. Craig, K. D. Johnston, R. L. Yeager, J. K. Smith, J. Pitta, et al. …

Two or more items by the same author

Order entries chronologically in the reference list.

If the works are published in the same year, list alphabetically by title, then assign 'a', 'b', 'c', as needed. This may mean that (Hartley 2007a) is not the first in-text citation.

Like this…
In text

(Author Yeara)
(Author Yearb)

(Hartley 2007a)
(Hartley 2007b)
Reference List

Author. Yeara. "Title of chapter." In Title of book, edited by Editor, page-page. Place of publication: Publisher.

Author. Yearb. "Title of chapter." In Title of book, edited by Editor, page-page. Place of publication: Publisher.

Hartley, John. 2007a. …
Hartley, John. 2007b. …
 

DOIs

DOIs provide publication details for electronic resources.

What is a DOI?

A Digital Object identifier (DOI) is a unique code, which provides a permanent link to an online resource. The most common resources to include a DOI are electronic journal articles.

How do I find a DOI for my reference list?

A DOI is usually printed on the first page of an online journal article or e-book. You can also check the database record. Alternatively, you can search for your article on the CrossRef database (http://www.crossref.org). If a DOI exists for your article, it will be recorded in this database.

What if a resource doesn't have a DOI?

If it is a webpage, pdf, online document: provide the URL or the URL where you accessed the online document (whichever is easier). Refer to the example in electronic journal articles.

Publication details

No date of publication

Substitute (n.d.) for the year in the citation and reference list.

Like this…

Author n.d. Title. Place of publication: Publisher.

Clipper, Lawrence J. n.d. Pride and pre…

Resources not yet published

Substitute (in press) for the year in the citation and reference list.

Approximate date

Precede the year with the contraction for circa. (ca. 1986)

No place of publication

This information is only required for printed materials that are not journals.

e.g. If a book does not have a city of publication, use n.p. to indicate no place in the reference list.

Like this…

Author Year. Title. n.p.: Publisher.

Shakespeare's sonnets. n.p.: Bradshow.
 

Page, volume, issue

In text citations should include the number of the page where you found the information.

For works without pagination, include a chapter or paragraph number (if available), a section heading, or a descriptive phrase that follows the divisions of the work.

In citations of shorter electronic works, presented as a single searchable document, such locators may be unnecessary.

Summaries of information/sources do not require page numbers for the in-text citation if the information comes from many pages.

Build your own

QUT cite|write is not comprehensive. Sometimes building your own is needed.

Steps to build a reference

A reference list entry consists of:

  • Elements: the elements of information required to identify a source without confusion
  • Order: the placement of the elements in a consistent conventional order
  • Formatting: the separating punctuation, quotation marks, parentheses, italics, and spaces.

Steps to build a reference, or to proof your drafted references:

  1. Glean, collect and save all the information needed / Check that all required elements are there.
  2. Place them in the appropriate order, or check that they are.
  3. Apply / check the appropriate formatting and spacing.

Generally, the elements consist of information as it is copied from the source used, or the location of that source. However, the information when placed in a reference, should then be formatted according to Harvard style, rather than the style found in the source. This ensures consistency for the reader.

Further information

Chicago has two style options, the 'Notes and bibliography' style is described in chapter 14, and the 'Author-date' style is in chapter 15. Harvard at QUT uses the author-date style. However, chapter 15 outlines only what is different from chapter 14, so chapter 14 is still a source to be referred to.

Harvard is based on The Chicago Manual of Style

Vancouver

More help with:

Authors

Format

Enter author's surname, followed by no more than 2 initials. Convert first and middle names to initials.

No author

Use the title in place of the author.

Corporate author

If the corporate author is a national or government body, and the country does not appear in the name, include the two-letter ISO country code in parentheses after the author. For Australian state bodies, include the three-letter state code.

If the corporate author includes the names of both the organisation and subdivisions or departments, include all the division names in order from the largest to smallest grouping. For Australian government publications, 'Australian Government' does not need to be included.

Separate multiple corporate authors with a semi-colon.

Examples

[1] National Health and Medical Research Council (AU); Consumers Health Forum of Australia. Statement on Consumer and Community involvement in Health and Medical Research [Internet]. Canberra (ACT): National Health and Medical Research Council; 2016 [cited 2019 Nov 28]: 25 p. Available from: https://www.nhmrc.gov.au/about-us/publications/statement-consumer-and-community-involvement-health-and-medical-research

[2] Parliament of the Commonwealth of Australia, House of Representatives Standing Committee on Health, Aged Care and Sport. Report on the Inquiry into the Use and Marketing of Electronic Cigarettes and Personal Vaporisers in Australia [Internet]. Canberra (ACT): Commonwealth of Australia; 2018 Mar [cited 2019 Oct 14]. 168 p. Available from: https://www.aph.gov.au/Parliamentary_Business/Committees/House/Health_Aged_Care_and_Sport/45th_Parliament_completed_inquiries

Editor not Author

Use the word editor(s) after the name(s).

Multiple Authors

List all authors. If space is a problem, list the first three(3) followed by "et al".

Secondary Source (author cited in another work)

If an author cites another author, name the cited author in your text, but reference the work being used (secondary source) not the cited work (original source) in your reference list.

Example

… to analyse the issue Nelson (8) discusses Anagonye's research into ….

[8] Nelson HM. …

 

Publication details

No place of publication

Substitute [place unknown]

How do I format the place of publication?

When referencing Australian cities, follow the place of publication with the three-letter Australian state code, e.g. Melbourne (VIC).

When referencing cities in the United States or Canada, follow the place of publication with the postal abbreviation for the state.

For other places, follow the place of publication with the name (or abbreviation) of the country.

No publisher

Substitute [publisher unknown]

No date of publication, but a copyright date?

If a copyright date (identified by the symbol ©) exists, use this date preceded by the letter 'c'. e.g. c2010.

No date of publication or copyright date

If neither a date of publication nor a date of copyright can be found, use the date cited, e.g. [cited 2016 Oct 27].

Resources not yet published

Substitute 'Forthcoming xxxx' for the year of publication, e.g. Forthcoming 2018.

Author the same as the Publisher

Repeat the name of the author as the publisher.

Unusual Resource

For non-routine items such as brochures and pamphlets, indicate the type of resource in square brackets after the title, e.g. Expo '88 [brochure].

Publisher abbreviations

Abbreviate commonly used words in publisher names, if preferred. E.g. Ltd. For Limited/ Univ. for University.

Follow all abbreviated words with a full stop.

See the NLM Style Guide for more examples of commonly abbreviated English words.

 

DOIs

What is a DOI?

DOIs (Digital Object Identifiers) are provided for electronic resources.

A DOI is a unique code which provides a permanent link to an online resource and looks similar to this - 10.1038/nrclinonc.2016.209. The most common types of resources to include a DOI are electronic journal articles and ebooks.

The DOIs for more recent electronic journal articles will be displayed as permanent URLs which will look similar to this - https://doi.org/10.1038/s41551-016-0004. Both formats are acceptable - use the format as it appears in your source.

DOIs should be provided in your reference when available, along with the URL.

How do I find a DOI?

A DOI is usually printed on the first page of an electronic journal article or ebook. You can also check the database record. Alternatively, you can search for your article on the CrossRef database (www.crossref.org). If a DOI exists for your article, it will be recorded in this database.

What if a resource does not have a DOI?

Provide the URL located at the top of the screen in the address box.

Some URLs are very long, be sure to provide the full URL by using the copy and paste function. You can break a URL at a slash if necessary.

Page numbers

What if there are no page numbers?

This will usually relate to electronic sources.

For individual documents (e.g. PDF documents) count the approximate number of pages, precede this count total with “about” and place in square brackets. e.g. [about 35 p.].

If your source is in an unpaginated format such as HTML or XML, count the approximate number of screens, paragraphs or lines, whichever is most practical. Precede with 'about' and place it in square brackets, e.g. [about 8 paragraphs].

Build your own

QUT cite|write does not provide examples of every possible type of reference - sometimes you need to create your own.

For a reference in Vancouver style, the following elements are needed:

Who. What. When: Where.

Who is responsible for creating the work?

  • author(s)
  • organisations

What is the work called?

  • title
  • journal title
  • book and chapter title
  • website title

When was the work created?

  • year
  • in press
  • year, month date (if continually updated)

Where can you find the work?

  • where it was published
  • journal volume, issues, and pages
  • DOI
  • website of report or journal

The Vancouver style in QUT cite|write is based upon the U.S. National Library of Medicine’s style guide for citing medicine. If you are building your own references or seeking example and fuller explanations of resources not covered in QUT cite|write, consult the following resources:

It is from these that we have developed the templates and examples in QUT cite|write.