Vancouver Examples - Getting started - In-text citation

See this example properly formatted in the QUT Cite tool.

The in-text citation is the first part of your reference. You must include an in-text citation every time you quote, paraphrase or summarize somebody else's words or ideas – that includes images, information from the internet, and even tweets!

What to include

In Vancouver style, in-text citations are numbered consecutively in the order in which they appear in your assignment, starting at 1. When you add a citation into your document you need to:


In a preliminary experiment,1 he showed that …

In a preliminary experiment, (1) he showed that …

… which was discovered in a preliminary experiment (1): further research showed that …

Both Clark and Marras et al.1-2 note that peak load moment has been suggested to play a major role in defining lower back disorder risk.

Several studies (3,5,9) have conducted a series of investigations with older drivers …

Page numbers

Vancouver style does not require a page number to pinpoint where specific information came from in the source, such as for a direct quote.

If your lecturer has requested you provide page numbers, they will need to confirm where and how they want the page number to appear in the reference.


Some reference types have slightly different in-text citations. We include the in-text citation in the example for that type, see: