Harvard Examples - In-text citation

See this example properly formatted in the QUT Cite tool.

Template

(Author Year, Page)

Examples

(Chen 2017, 15)

(Australian Bureau of Statistics 2016, 12-23)

(ABS 2016, para. 12)

(Shaw 2018, 157; Tsai 2016a, 34)

(Tsai 2006b, 312)

Note

In-text citations are placed in the text near sourced information. They provide basic information elements about the source. Just enough to credit the source and allow the reader to locate the full reference in the reference list. When there is a page number, the citation also directs to the location of the information used, where it appears in the original source.

Authors

For a personal author, use the family name only. For corporate authors, use the full name of the author when first citing the source, and for long names, abbreviate the author in consequent use.

See the Authors button below for more instructions about:

Page numbers

Directly quoted information requires a page number or page range in the in-text citation. Summaries of large amounts of information do not require a page number.

If a source does not use page numbers, use the paragraph or slide number preceded by "para. " or "slide".

Single sentence, multiples citations

When a sentence uses information from more than one source, it is possible to join multiple citations by connecting them with a semicolon.

Multiple sentences, same citation

Where multiple consecutive sentences use information from the same single source, it is not necessary to provide a citation after each of the sentences. It is sufficient to place a citation at the end of the consecutive sentences, or a paragraph, to cover the citable information in the preceding text. However, this practice should be rare in a lot of work. This is because few marks are to be found in copying. Marks are given for analysis, synthesis and the effective use of multiple appropriate sources.

Placement in text

There is flexibility in how to use the citation information. One may wish to discuss the author in the sentence, for example to emphasise their status as an expert, to support your argument. Or one can synthesise sourced information and have the citation appear more discretely, at the end of a sentence, just before the full stop. Make the citations work for the scholarly communication style being pursued. So long as the required citation information elements are included, and at least one of the elements ends up in round brackets, usage will be technically correct.

Examples

Chen (2005, 15) spoke about "self-determination" and inspired the people to seek freedom.

Self determination for Taiwan is a right, and seeking freedom is a duty (Chen 2005, 15).

The speech dealt with "self-determination" (15) and laid the basis for policy (Chen 2005).

Paraphrasing, quotes and block quotes

Paraphrasing: when including information not your own using your own words:

Short quotations: when quoting text word for word from a source:

Long quotations: when using quotes over about three sentences, that don't fit naturally in the paragraph:

Acceptable changes to original wording

Direct quotation copies word for word what is in the source, with these exceptions:

More examples

For visualisation of in-text citations being with quotations, see also the QUT cite|write booklet (PDF, 726KB). For examples of in text citations used in the paragraphs of an essay, see Structuring your assignment. Note that the examples are not in Harvard style, so the punctuation used is not correct.

Exceptions

Some reference types have slightly different in-text citations. We include the in-text citation in the example for that type, see: