APA Examples - QUT Resources and personal communications - Personal communication

See this example properly formatted in the QUT Cite tool.

In-text

Template

(A. Author, personal communication, Month DD, Year)

OR

Author stated… (personal communication, Month DD, Year)

Example

It was confirmed that this organism was present (Professor R. Collins, personal communication, April 16, 2004).

Reference list

Personal communications are not included in the reference list, as these materials cannot be traced by the reader.

Personal communications include private letters, memos, personally conducted, unpublished interviews, and electronic messages (not publically archived).