Purpose, authority and governing principles
1. QUT cite|write is an introductory guide to referencing, citing and writing at an undergraduate level, to facilitate effective and appropriate academic practice in the completion of course-related assessment tasks.
2. QUT cite|write supports four standard styles of referencing and citing which suit the majority of undergraduate students for the majority of needs and assessment tasks. The purpose of supporting standard styles is to:
- assist the students to transfer their referencing and citing skills across subjects, disciplines, units and assessment tasks;
- minimise error and confusion for students and staff;
- assist the reader to identify and locate cited sources; and
- support and engender academic integrity within a construct of consistently applied ethical practice.
3. QUT cite|write precisely references the following authoritative styles:
- QUT Harvard: Chicago Manual of Style 16th (CMoS). Using a core syle such as CMoS ensures consistency and rigor with rules and application, and resolves confusion caused by multiple and often individualised variations of "Harvard" (being no authorised published manual of style for "Harvard"). Each reference/citation example can be clearly justified by and referenced to a CMoS rule.
- QUT APA: APA 6th, as published in the revised edition. Each reference/citation example can be clearly justified by and referenced to an APA rule
- QUT Numbered: Vancouver, as endorsed by the National Library of Medicine/NLM.
- QUT Legal: as stipulated by the QUT Faculty of Law, Law School Written Assessment in the Law School
4. Examples have been selected for the online guides on the basis of common usage and commonality across and between disciplines.
5. Where there is no example provided in QUT cite|write for a specific resource in a specific QUT style, students and staffs should apply the standard rules to approximate the referencing convention of that style.
6. Where a discipline/faculty-specific deviation in convention is preferred or required, it is the right and responsibility of the faculty/academic to alert students to the deviation and to provide students with a clear alternate convention to follow.
7. Specific consideration is given to ensuring QUT cite|write resources (print and online):
- respond to the diversity of learning styles, needs and preferences of QUT students;
- are fully accessible for students with diverse capabilities and specific learning needs;
- allow equal and easy availability to all students regardless of time of day, mode of study, or location;
- are responsive to students' cultural and experiential diversity (eg: international students, mature entry students);
- facilitate and engender transition into and through a QUT undergraduate degree program;
- support QUT's commitment to enhancing the First Year and continuing student experience (copies provided free to commencing students);
- are low impact (bandwidth and environment); and
- low cost (purchase and printing).
8. As a general matter of course, undergraduates do not publish in scholarly works. If/when they do, students should closely follow the referencing guidelines set down by the intended publisher which may well be a deviation from a standard referencing/citing style and QUT cite|write.
9. QUT cite|write is appropriate to the needs of undergraduate students in their early years of academic study. Staff and postgraduate students seeking to publish in scholarly works are advised to refer to and use the guidelines provided by each publisher/editor in conjunction with the published manual/s for those styles.
Governance, supply and funding
- QUT Library is the Service Owner of QUT cite|write.
- Annual publication and supply is funded jointly by the Vice-Chancellor, Registrar and DVC/Division of Information, Technology and Learning Support.
- Free copies are provided to all commencing students, with distribution via Library Learning and Research Desks.
- Copies are also available for purchase from QUT Bookshops, or for download from this website.
Communication and promotion
Accurate information is vital to ensure students enact consistent practice in writing, referencing and citing. Extensive Communication Plans for QUT cite|write are managed by the Division of TILS' Communications Team, in partnership with the the QUT cite|write Editorial Team. Strategies include:
- broadcast emails to commencing students at the commencement of each semester;
- printed materials in Faculty Orientation bags, and presentation slides in Faculty Orientation sessions;
- institutional announcements on QV and Blackboard at the commencement of each semester; and
- update messages and emails to other support services teams and staff (eg: International Student Services).
Review and maintenance
For quality assurance and version control, QUT cite|write publication timelines are as follows:
|Annual (September-November)||Major review||booklet and online guides to ensure the publication proceeds through editing, proofing and printing by January of the following year||Editorial Team|
|Monthly||Ongoing quality assurance||whole site||Editorial Team|
|6 monthly||Minor review||all online guides||Editorial Team|
|As required||Minor amendments||online referencing style guides in the event of error, or upon a major release of a new edition of a core style||Editorial Team|
- The QUT cite|write Editorial team adjusts a style only where there is a significant lack of clarity or inconsistency in associating common resources with a closest match in CMoS, APA or Vancouver (Numbered).
- Every effort is made to limit major changes to the booklet to ensure that the resource is relevant for the duration of a student's course of study at QUT.
- The Editorial Team undertakes regular review of all QUT cite|write resources in terms of usage, relevance and enhancements. Errors, inclusions and exclusions are reviewed and considered by the Editorial Team. Feedback is encouraged.
History and acknowledgements
QUT cite|write (1st edition) was developed and released in 2008, as a replacement for the existing guide "The Written Assignment". In response to student and staff feedback, the format and layout of the QUT cite|write booklet was modified for subsequent editions.
QUT cite|write is the product of significant University-wide collaboration and voluntary engagement of highly experienced and dedicated staff from across a range of QUT student service and support areas. This partnership has enabled the input and expertise necessary to deliver a high quality student-focussed resource.
Original content, design, publication, website creation and promotion/communication was the responsibility of the QUT cite|write Development Team. Post-establishment, QUT cite|write is now maintained by the cross-university collaborative QUT cite|write Editorial Team. Contributors are listed as follows:
Click here to read important information regarding changes to QUT APA, QUT Harvard and QUT Numbered styles in 2011.
|Name||Service Role||Service Area||Specific expertise/contribution||
|Elizabeth Alvey||Liaison Librarian (Education)||QUT Library||Referencing & citing - APA|
|Elleina Andrews||TILS Communications Team||TILS/ Office of the DVC||Communications/publication|
|Philippa Broadley||Library Adviser (BEE)||QUT Library||Referencing & citing - Harvard|
|Geraldine Bridier||TILS Communications Team||TILS/ Office of the DVC||Communications/publication|
|Dr Abby Cathcart||
Lecturer, School of Management
|QUT Business School||Faculty rep (referencing & citing - APA)|
|Kate Derrington||Academic Skills Adviser / KG||QUT Library||Academic/study skills/ writing|
|Kate Devitt||Academic Skills Adviser / GP||QUT Library||Academic/study skills/ writing|
|Lynn Evans||Liaison Librarian (Health)||QUT Library||Referencing & citing - Numbered|
|Sally French||Library Adviser (CI)||QUT Library||Referencing & citing - Harvard|
|Rena Frohman||Language and Learning Adviser||QUT International College||Academic/studyskills/ international students|
|Kate Harbison||Liaison Librarian (Humanities)||QUT Library||Referencing & citing - APA|
|Chris Hart||Library Adviser (Health)||QUT Library||Referencing & citing - Numbered|
|Mandy King||Academic Skills Adviser||TALSS||Academic/study skills/ writing|
|Lynda Lawson||Language & Learning Adviser||International Student Services||Academic/study skills/ international students|
|Joanna Logan||Liaison Librarian (Education)||QUT Library||Information/research skills/ referencing & citing|
|Patrice Meixsell-Draper||Team Leader, TILS Communications Team (retired 2012)||TILS/ Office of the DVC||Communications/publication|
|Karin Medew||Academic Skills Adviser / Cab||QUT Library||Academic/study skills/ writing|
|Judith Peacock||Learning & Study Support Coordinator||Library/ Office of the Director||Service Coordinator/ Team Convenor|
|Nerida Quatermass||Liaison Librarian (Law)||QUT Library||Referencing & citing - Legal|
|Andrea Reid||Learning and Teaching Consultant||Faculty of Business||Faculty representative (Referencing & citing - APA)|
|Anastasia Renshaw||TILS Communications Team||TILS/ Office of the DVC||Communications/publication|
|Shannon Robinson||Liaison Librarian (Creative Industries)||QUT Library||Referencing & citing - Harvard|
|Luisa Rossitto||Liaison Librarian (Education)||QUT Library||Information/research skills/ referencing & citing|
|Cameron Rutter||Library Adviser (Business)||QUT Library||Referencing & citing - Harvard|
|Rebecca Sandford||TILS Communications Team||TILS/ Office of the DVC||Communications/publication|
Dr Madeleine Schultz
|Lecturer, School of Chemistry||FaST/STEM||Faculty representative (adviser, hard sciences style (TBA 2013)|
|Brendan Sinnamon||Liaison Librarian (FaST)||QUT Library||Referencing & citing - Harvard|
|Ellen Thompson||Liaison Librarian (Creative Industries)||QUT Library||Information/research skills/ referencing & citing|
|Bernadette Willans||Liaison Librarian (Psych)/ now Academic Skills Adviser||QUT Library||Academic/study skills/ writing; Referencing & citing - APA|
|Oksana Zelenko||Transitions Coordinator||Creative Industries||Faculty representative|
As Project Coordinator and Service Manager for QUT cite|write, I would like to express my appreciation for the ongoing dedication and contribution of these individual QUT staff members in the development and support of the resource. On behalf of all team members, past and present, I would also like to extend thanks to section, department and divisional managers and Directors for their support for the ongoing involvement of their staff, and to the DVC/TILS and the QUT Registrar for their continued financial and strategic commitment to QUT cite|write.
QUT cite|write Editorial Team Convenor (May 2012)