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Referencing Styles

The following reference styles are in use at QUT

QUT APA

The following types of media are available for QUT APA

Authors?

No author?

Use the title in place of the author in text and in the reference list.

Like this...
In Text
(Title, Year)

Examples:
(HIV/AIDS resources, 2004)
("Examining modernism in Brisbane architecture", 2009)
Reference List
Title. (Year)...

Example:
HIV/AIDs resources: A nationwide directory (10th ed.). (2004)...

Corporate author?

The names of groups that serve as authors (e.g. government bodies or organisations) are spelled out each time they are cited. If the name is long and the abbreviation is well known, you may use the abbreviation in second (and additional) citations. The full name is used in the reference list. Include sufficient information about the organisation to make it readily identifiable. e.g. Australia, Department of Education.

Like this...
In text
First use:
(Name of Organisation, Year)

Examples:
(Australian Bureau of Statistics, 2007)
(Department of Justice and Attorney-General, Workplace Health and Safety Queensland, 2013)

Subsequent uses:
(NOO, Year)

Example:
(ABS, 2007)
Reference List
Name of Organisation. (Year)...

Examples:
Australian Bureau of Statistics. (2007)...
Department of Justice and Attorney-General, Workplace Health and Safety Queensland. (2013)...

Editor?

If possible cite the portion of the edited work that you are using. If not, use Ed./Eds. to indicate editors after the title in the reference list only.

Like this...
In text
Editor, Editor and Editor (Year) or (Editor, Editor, & Editor, Year)

Example:
Buckleton, Triggs, and Walsh (2005) or (Buckleton, Triggs, & Walsh 2005)
Reference List
Editor, Editor, & Editor (Eds.). (Year)...

Example:
Buckleton, J., Triggs, C. M., & Walsh, S.J. (Eds.). (2005)...

Author and editor?

Refer to the editor only in the reference list.

Like this...
In text
(Author, Year)

Example:
(Foucault, 2003)
Reference List
Author. (Year). Title. (Editor)...

Example:
Foucault, M. (2003). Abnormal: Lectures at the Collège de France, 1974-1975. (ed. V. Marchetti & A. Salomoni). New York, NY: Picador

Author and translator?

If known, supply the original date of the work and the date of the translation.

Like this...
In text
(Author, Original Year/Translation Year)

Example:
(LaPlace, 1814/1951)
Reference List
Author. (Translation Year). Title (Translator Name, Trans.). Place of publication: Publisher. (Original work published Year)

Example:
LaPlace, P. (1951). A philosophical essay on probabilities (F. W. Truscott & F. L. Emory, Trans.). New York, NY: Dover. (Original work published 1814).

Author quoted in another work (Secondary Source)?

In the text, name the original source and give the citation for the secondary source. Only give the secondary source in the reference list.

Like this...
In text
Primary author (as cited in Secondary Author, Year, p. _)

Example:
Zukofsky (as cited in Costello, 1981, p. 45)
Reference List
Secondary Author. (Year). Title of Secondary Work...

Example:
Costello, B. (1981). Marianne Moore: Imaginary posessions...

Two(2) authors?

Like this...
In text

List both authors in every citation:

(Author & Author, Date)

Example:
(Purdie & Smith, 1999)

Spell 'and' if it forms part of your text:

Author and Author (Year)...

Example:
Purdie and Smith (1999).
Reference List

List all authors:

Author & Author. (Year)...

Example:
Purdie, N., & Smith, D. (1999)...

Three(3) to five(5) authors?

Like this...
In text

Include all of the authors the first time you cite the work, but then only the first author followed by 'et al.' for subsequent references to that work.

First Time:
(Author, Author, Author, & Author, year)

Subsequently:
(Author et al., year)
Reference List

List all authors.

Author, Author, Author, & Author. (Year)...

Example:
O'Neil, C., Harbison, K.L., Brodribb, M., & Peacock, J.(2012)...

Six(6) to seven(7) authors?

Like this...
In text

Name only the first author followed by 'et al.'.

(Author et al., Year)

Example:
(Stoner et al., 1998)
Reference List

List all authors.

Eight(8) or more Authors?

Like this...
In text

Name only the first author followed by 'et al.'.

Reference List

List the first 6 authors, insert an ellipsis, and add the last author's name:

Author, Author, Author, Author, Author, Author, ... Last Author. (Year)...

Example:
Stoner, J. A. F., Yetton, P. W., Craig, J. F., Johnston, K. D., Yeager, R. L., Smith, J. K., ... Pitta, J.(1998)...

Two items by the same author?

Order entries chronologically in the reference list.

Like this...
In text
Author (Year)

Example:
(Hartley, 2007)
Reference List
Author. (1st Year)...
Author. (2nd Year)...

Example:
Hartley, J. (2007)...
Hartley, J. (2009)...

If the works are published in the same year, list alphabetically by title, then assign 'a', 'b', 'c', as needed.

In text
(Author, Yeara)

Example:
(Hartley, 2007a)
Reference List
Author. (Yeara)...
Author. (Yearb)...

Example:
Hartley, J. (2007a)...
Hartley, J. (2007b)...
 

DOIs?

In APA, DOIs provide publication details for electronic sources.

What is a DOI?

A Digital Object identifier (DOI) is a unique code, which provides a permanent link to an online resource. The most common resources to include a DOI are electronic journal articles.

How do I find a DOI, for my reference list?

A DOI is usually printed on the first page of an online journal article or e-book. You can also check the database record. Alternatively, you can search for your article on the CrossRef database (http://www.crossref.org). If a DOI exists for your article, it will be recorded in this database.

What if a resource doesn't have a DOI?

If it is an electronic article, available in online databases: do a quick web search to locate the home page of the journal/magazine/publisher. Provide this URL instead of a DOI.

If it is a webpage, pdf, online document: provide the URL or the URL where you accessed the online document (whichever is easier).

If it is a resource only available in a particular database or archive. Use the URL instead of the DOI.

For more information on DOIs, check out the APA Style Blog FAQ, or APA Style Blog Video Demonstration.

Publication details?

No date of publication?

Use 'n.d.' for the year in the citation and reference list.

Like this...
Author. (n.d.).

Resources not yet published?

Substitute 'in press' for the year in the citation and reference list.

Like this...
Author. (in press).

Approximate date?

Precede the year with the contraction for circa.

Like this...
Author. (ca. Year).

Dates for magazine, newspaper or internet message board resources?

Be as specific as needed about the publication date.

Like this...
(Year, Month)
(Year, Month Date)

Example:
(2011, November)
(2011, November 21)

Place of publication?

For places in Australia or the United States: Follow the place of publication by the postal abbreviation for the state.

For other places: Use the name (or abbreviation) of the country.

Like this...
Brisbane, Qld
Boston, MA
Oxford, UK
Paris, France

No place of publication?

Only required for printed materials that are not journals.

If a book does not have a place of publication, use 'n.p.' to indicate no place.

Like this...
Author. (Year). Title. n.p.: Publisher.

Example:
Hynes, L. J. (1974). Shakespeare's Sonnets. n.p.: Bradshaw.

Author the same as the publisher?

Replace the publisher information with the word author:

Like this...
Example:
Children's Media Australia. (2006). Watching cartoons [brochure]. Melbourne, VIC: Author.

Unusual Resource?

For non-routine items, such as kindle book, brochures, pamphlets, posters; indicate the type of resource in square brackets after the title.

Like this...
Example:
Children's Media Australia. (2006). Watching cartoons [brochure]. Melbourne, VIC: Author.
 

Numbers (page, volume, issue)?

When to cite page numbers

Previously, APA referencing required page numbers (or other location references) only for a direct quotation from another source. However, the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (6th ed.) states:

To cite a specific part of a source, indicate the page, chapter, figure, table, or equation at the appropriate point in text. Always give page numbers for quotations. (p. 179)
When paraphrasing or referring to an idea contained in another work, you are encouraged to provide a page or paragraph number, especially when it would help an interested reader locate the relevant passage in a long or complex text. (p. 171)

Therefore, it is best to check with your lecturer as to her/his preferences in this matter.

No page numbers?

For electronic sources that do not provide page numbers, use the paragraph number preceded by the abbreviation 'para. ':

Like this...

(Warr & Ellison, 2000, para. 4)

If neither paragraph nor page numbers are visible, cite the heading and the number of the paragraphs following it to direct the reader to the location of the material:

(Warr & Ellison, 2000, The consequences of fear, para. 4)

Volume and issue numbers

If each issue of a journal starts with page 1, then include the issue number (in parentheses) after the volume number. It is not necessary to include the issue number if the journal uses continuous pagination.

Volume numbers are italicised. Issue numbers are not.

Like this...

Journal paginated separately by issue:

Author. (Year). Article title. Journal Title, 4(3), 73-82.

Continuous pagination:

Author. (Year). Article title. Journal Title, 4, 73-82.

QUT Harvard

Authors

Chicago Manual of Style (16th edition) requires author's given or first names to be spelt out in full in a reference list. This is the preference when using QUT Harvard.

However, if you are unable to find an author's first name, copy the format for author's name on the item you are citing. This may mean that some author's given names will be spelt out and some will have initials.

No author?

Use the title in place of the author. Put the title in italics.

Like this...
In text

(Title Year)

(Stedman's medical dictionary for the health professions and nursing ...)
Reference List

Title. Year. edition. Place of publication: Publisher.

Stedman's medical dictionary for the health professions and nursing. ...

Corporate author?

The names of groups that serve as authors (e.g. government bodies or organisations) are written in full in the reference list and the first time they are cited. The acronym for a name may be used in second and subsequent citations. Include jurisdictions if a government body, e.g. Queensland Department of Environment and Resource Management.

If the unit name is not unique enough to be found without the jurisdiction and government department information, include the jurisdiction and department name. Where the department name is included, it comes before the unit name.

Like this...
In text

First use:
(Jurisdiction. Government Department, Year)
  Or:
(Name of Organisation, Year)

(Australian Bureau of Statistics ...)

Subsequent uses:

(ABS, ...)
Reference List

Jurisdiction Government Department. Year. Title of document. Place of publication: Publisher.

Department of Justice and Attorney-General, Workplace Health and Safety Queensland. ...

United States. Senate. Committee on Foreign Relations. ...

Author and editor?

Like this...
In text

(Surname Year)

(Derrida ...)
Reference List

Author. Year. Title, edited by Editor name. Place of publication: Publisher.

Derrida, Jacques. ... , edited by Derek Attridge. ...

Author as editor?

Like this...
In text

(Surname Year)

(Woolever ...)
Reference List

Insert ed. after the author's name, in the reference list only.

Author, ed. Year. Title, Edition. Place of publication: Publisher.

Woolever, Karen Reese, ed. ...

Author quoted in another work (Secondary Source)?

Like this...
In text

Name the original author, and then cite the secondary author (i.e. the author you read).

(Original author surname quoted in Secondary author surname Year, page from secondary author's book)

(Zukofsky quoted in Costello ...
Reference List

Reference the secondary source only in the reference list.

Secondary author. Year. Title of secondary source. Place of publication: Publisher.

Costello, Bonnie. ...

Two(2) to three(3) authors?

Like this...
In text

List all authors in every citation.

(Surname 1, Surname 2 and Surname 3 Year, page)

(Layton, Robinson and Tucker ...
Reference List

List all authors. For 2-3 authors, only the first-listed name is inverted. For the second and third author, the first given name and middle initial(s) - if available - are written in front of the family name.

Author 1, Author 2 and Author 3. Year. Title. Place of publication: Publisher.

Layton, Allan, Tim Robinson and Irvin B. Tucker. ...

Four(4) to ten(10) authors?

Like this...
In text

In the text, cite only the last name of the first-listed author, followed by 'et al.'.

(Surname et al. Year)

(Stoner et al. ...)
Reference List

List all authors. For 4-10 authors, only the first listed name is inverted. For the remaining authors, the first given name and middle initial(s) - if available - are written in front of the family name.

Author 1, Author 2, Author 3, and Author 4. Year. Title. edition. Place of publication: Publisher.

Stoner, James A.F., Paul W. Yetton, John F. Craig, and Kevin D. Johnston. ...

Eleven(11) or more authors?

Like this...
In text

Name only the first author followed by 'et al.'.

(Surname et al. Year)

(Stoner et al. ...)
Reference List

For eleven or more authors, list the first seven followed by 'et al.'.

Author 1, Author 2, Author 3, Author 4, Author 5, Author 6, Author 7, et al. Year. Title. edition. Place of publication: Publisher.

Stoner, James A. F., P. W. Yettor, J. F. Craig, K. D. Johnston, R. L. Yeager, J. K. Smith, J. Pitta, et al. ...

Two or more items by the same author?

Order entries chronologically in the reference list.

If the works are published in the same year, list alphabetically by title, then assign 'a', 'b', 'c', as needed. This may mean that (Hartley 2007a) is not the first in-text citation.

Like this...
In text

(Author Yeara)
(Author Yearb)

(Hartley 2007a)
(Hartley 2007b)
Reference List

Author. Yeara. "Title of chapter." In Title of book, edited by Editor, page-page. Place of publication: Publisher.

Author. Yearb. "Title of chapter." In Title of book, edited by Editor, page-page. Place of publication: Publisher.

Hartley, John. 2007a. ...
Hartley, John. 2007b. ...
 

DOIs?

DOIs provide publication details for electronic resources.

What is a DOI?

A Digital Object identifier (DOI) is a unique code, which provides a permanent link to an online resource. The most common resources to include a DOI are electronic journal articles.

How do I find a DOI for my reference list?

A DOI is usually printed on the first page of an online journal article or e-book. You can also check the database record. Alternatively, you can search for your article on the CrossRef database (http://www.crossref.org). If a DOI exists for your article, it will be recorded in this database.

What if a resource doesn't have a DOI?

If it is a webpage, pdf, online document: provide the URL or the URL where you accessed the online document (whichever is easier). Refer to the example in electronic journal articles.

Publication details?

No date of publication?

Substitute (n.d.) for the year in the citation and reference list.

Like this...

Author n.d. Title. Place of publication: Publisher.

Clipper, Lawrence J. n.d. Pride and pre...

Resources not yet published?

Substitute (in press) for the year in the citation and reference list.

Approximate date?

Precede the year with the contraction for circa. (ca. 1986)

No place of publication?

This information is only required for printed materials that are not journals.

e.g. If a book does not have a city of publication, use n.p. to indicate no place in the reference list.

Like this...

Author Year. Title. n.p.: Publisher.

... Shakespeare's sonnets. n.p.: Bradshow.
 

Page Numbers?

In text citations should include the number of the page where you found the information.

For works without pagination, include a chapter or paragraph number (if available), a section heading, or a descriptive phrase that follows the divisions of the work.

In citations of shorter electronic works, presented as a single searchable document, such locators may be unnecessary.

Summaries of information/sources do not require page numbers for the in-text citation if the information comes from many pages.

QUT Numbered

Authors?

No author?

Use the title in place of the author.

Corporate author?

If no individual authors are listed, use the organisation or government department.

Like this...

[3] Workplace Health and Safety Queesland. Nanotechnology research continues for safer workplaces now and in the future [Internet]. 2013 [cited 2013 Jun 14]. Available from: http://www.deir.qld.gov.au/workplace/publications/safe/feb13/nanotechnology-research/index.htm?utm_source=enews&utm_medium=email&utm_content=nanotechnology+research+article+link&utm_campaign=esafefeb13

Editor not Author?

Use the word editor(s) after the name(s).

Multiple Authors?

List all authors. If space is a problem, list the first three(3) followed by 'et al'.

Secondary Source (author quoted in another work)

If an author quotes another author, name the quoted author in your text, but reference the work being used (secondary source) not the quoted work (original source) in your reference list.

 

Publication details?

No place of publication?

Substitute [place unknown]

No date of publication or copyright date?

Substitute [date unknown]

Copyright Date?

If a copyright date (identified by the symbol ©) exists, use this date preceded by the letter 'c'. e.g. c2010

Resources not yet published?

Substitute 'Forthcoming' for the year of publication.

Author the same as the Publisher

Repeat the name of the author as the publisher.

Unusual Resource?

For non-routine items such as brochures and pamphlets, indicate the type of resource in square brackets after the title.

 

DOI?

What is a DOI?

DOIs are provided for electronic resources.

A digital Object Identifier (DOI) is a unique code, which provides a permanent link to an online resource. The most common resources to include a DOI are electronic journal articles.

How do I find a DOI?

A DOI is usually printed on the first page of an online journal or e-book. You can also check the database record. Alternatively, you can search for your article on the CrossRef database (www.crossref.org). If a DOI exists for your article, it will be recorded in this database.

What if a resource does not have a DOI?

Provide the URL located at the top of the screen in the URL box. Some URLs are very long, be sure to provide the full URL by using the copy and paste function.

Page numbers?

What do I do if I have no page numbers?

Complete works put the number of pages after the date cited. e.g. 241p

For electronic sources

Individual documents put either the number of pages if known (as above) or the approximate number of pages in square brackets. e.g. [about 3p.]

If no page breaks are obvious put the approximate number of screens in square brackets. e.g. [about 3 screens]